The UKBA Glossary of Bonsai Terms - Acknowledgements

It would be impossible - if not unbelievable - to claim that all of this work was that of an individual or ours alone. Several people, organisations and texts have all been used to add information to this Glossary. 

This Glossary is a mix of information; we will try and acknowledge all and hope those that we miss will forgive. Please draw any omission to our attention and we will correct this, for without these people sharing their knowledge we would be poorer in ours.   The following have been used as our sources of information, confirmation, and breadth of cover:

  • Wikipedia
  • Scottish Bonsai Association
  • Bonsai Focus
  • University of Wisconsin
  • The Art of Bonsai Project
  • National Arboretum of Canberra
  • After E. Epstein. 1965. "Mineral metabolism" pp. 438-466. in: Plant Biochemistry (J.Bonner and J.E. Varner, eds.) Academic Press, London
  • Bonsai Eejit
  • North Carolina Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services

Added to these are, of course, a good deal of personal learning and interpretation.  On some occasions large sections of information have been used; on others, this has been blended with information from several sources; and elsewhere, purely based on personal understanding.  Errors are ours, and differences of opinion will be incorporated in as far as possible (see 'Conventions' page). 

Please share any items you wish to expand, correct, and/or clarify with an email to  THANK YOU all for your contributions and furthering our understanding of bonsai.

If you find a term missing, an error, or believe that the explanation/definition here is insufficient, please contact us at

©UK Bonsai Association December 2018
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